What Is A Bitcoin ETF?

Bitcoin Exchange-Traded Funds (ETFs) are designed to track the performance of the underlying asset or index of publicly traded bitcoin mining companies.
Bitcoin Exchange-Traded Funds (ETFs) are designed to track the performance of the underlying asset or index of publicly traded bitcoin mining companies.


As interest in bitcoin continues to grow, so does the demand for investment products that provide exposure to companies and funds alike. One such product that has gained significant attention is the Bitcoin Exchange-Traded Fund (ETF).

What Is An ETF?

ETFs are designed to track the performance of a particular index, commodity or asset class. This means that when you invest in an ETF, you are essentially buying a basket of securities or commodities that represent the underlying index or asset. For example, if you invest in an ETF that tracks the S&P 500 index, you will own a proportional share of the companies included in that index.

One of the key advantages of ETFs is their ability to be traded on a stock exchange throughout the day, just like individual stocks. This is in contrast to traditional mutual funds, which are bought and sold at the end of the trading day at the price determined by the asset’s net asset value (NAV). The ability to trade ETFs throughout the day provides investors with flexibility and the opportunity to react quickly to market movements.

ETFs have gained significant popularity among both individual and institutional investors due to their unique features and benefits. One of the main attractions of ETFs is their low costs. Compared to traditional mutual funds, ETFs generally have lower expense ratios, which means investors can keep more of their investment returns. Additionally, ETFs are known for their tax efficiency. Because of the way they are structured, ETFs typically generate fewer capital gains distributions compared to mutual funds, resulting in potential tax savings for investors.

Another advantage of ETFs is their flexibility. With ETFs, investors can easily buy or sell shares on the stock exchange, allowing for quick and efficient portfolio adjustments. This flexibility is particularly valuable for investors who want to implement specific investment strategies or make tactical asset allocation changes.

Furthermore, ETFs offer investors the opportunity to diversify their portfolios across different asset classes, sectors or regions. By investing in a single ETF, investors can gain exposure to a wide range of securities, reducing the risk associated with individual stocks or bonds. This diversification helps to spread risk and potentially enhance returns.

ETFs have revolutionized the investment landscape by providing investors with a cost-effective, tax-efficient and flexible way to gain exposure to various assets. Whether you are a seasoned investor looking to diversify your portfolio or a beginner seeking an entry point into the market, ETFs can be a valuable tool for achieving your investment goals.

Types Of Bitcoin ETFs

Bitcoin ETFs come in different forms. The two most common types are physically backed or spot ETFs and futures-based ETFs.

  • Bitcoin Spot ETFs hold bitcoin. This means that for every share of the ETF, there is a corresponding amount of bitcoin held in a secure custodian. Investors who hold shares of a physically backed Bitcoin ETF indirectly own a portion of the underlying bitcoin. One of the main concerns is the security of the bitcoin held by the custodian, therefore it is crucial for the custodian to have robust security measures in place to protect the underlying asset.
  • Bitcoin Futures ETFs do not hold bitcoin. Instead, they are futures contracts, which derive their value from the price of bitcoin, allowing investors to gain exposure to bitcoin without directly owning the digital currency. Since the ETF holds futures contracts rather than physical bitcoin, investors can easily buy and sell shares on traditional exchanges. This provides liquidity and flexibility for investors who want to take advantage of short-term price movements. However, it is important to note that futures-based ETFs may not provide the same level of direct exposure to bitcoin as physically backed ETFs. The value of the futures contracts may not perfectly track the price of bitcoin, and there can be discrepancies due to factors such as market sentiment and trading volume. Additionally, the use of futures contracts introduces counterparty risk, as investors are exposed to the financial stability of the futures exchange.
  • Bitcoin Mining ETFs allow investors to have exposure to the profits of bitcoin mining companies without needing to buy the stocks of each company individually. Mining is the process through which new bitcoins are released into circulation and the records of bitcoin transactions are cryptographically hashed into blocks. The value of the ETF would go up or down based on the aggregate performance of the companies it's tracking. The main idea behind such an ETF is to allow investors to benefit from the growth of the Bitcoin mining industry, while also expediting sector investment and validate the industry’s efforts so far.
  • Short Bitcoin ETFs try to profit from a decline in the value of bitcoin. Shorting is a financial strategy where an investor borrows a security or an asset, like bitcoin, and sells it, expecting the price to fall. The investor then plans to buy the security back at a lower price and return it to the lender, keeping the difference as profit. A Bitcoin Short ETF uses various financial instruments (like derivatives and futures contracts) to create the effect of shorting bitcoin, providing investors with profits if the price of vitcoin decreases.
  • Long Bitcoin ETFs are the opposite of Short Bitcoin ETFs. These ETFs try to profit from an increase in the value of bitcoin. Going long is a financial strategy where an investor holds an asset or a futures contract where the holder is obligated to buy or sell an underlying asset at a predetermined and agreed-upon price. A Bitcoin Long ETF uses various financial instruments (like derivatives and futures contracts) to create the effect of going long bitcoin, providing investors with profits if the price of bitcoin increases. Essentially, all Spot Bitcoin ETFs could be considered Long Bitcoin ETFs, though a specifically Long Bitcoin ETF might also trade in derivatives or futures contracts as well.

Why The Need For An ETF?

While there are several ways to invest in bitcoin, such as buying the digital currency directly on a cryptocurrency exchange or investing in Bitcoin-related companies, the introduction of a Bitcoin ETF offers several differentiating features.

First, it provides a regulated and accessible way for investors to gain exposure to bitcoin. This is particularly appealing to investors who are unfamiliar or uncomfortable with navigating the intricacies of cryptocurrency exchanges. ETFs are subject to regulatory oversight, providing investors with a level of protection and transparency.

Second, a Bitcoin ETF allows investors to gain exposure to bitcoin without the need to directly hold the digital currency. This eliminates the complexities and security risks associated with storing and safeguarding bitcoin. Additionally, ETFs provide investors with the ability to easily buy and sell shares, enhancing liquidity and reducing transaction costs.

Third, many investors are not allowed to hold bitcoin outright, they can only do so via regulated financial offerings, such as ETFs.

How Does A Bitcoin ETF Work?

When an investor buys shares of a Bitcoin ETF, they are essentially buying a piece of the fund, which holds bitcoin as its underlying asset. The fund is responsible for managing the bitcoin holdings and tracking its performance. The price of the ETF shares is determined by the market demand and the net asset value (NAV) of the underlying bitcoin holdings.

The fund provider secures the bitcoin against theft or hacking attempts. The fund provider also handles the buying and selling of bitcoin, based on the demand for the ETF shares and the creation and redemption process.

Investors can buy and sell shares of the Bitcoin ETF on a stock exchange, just like any other publicly traded security. This provides them with the flexibility to enter and exit their positions at any time throughout the trading day.

History Of Bitcoin ETFs In The United States

Many types of bitcoin ETFs have been in the works for several years. The SEC has yet to approve of any of the spot bitcoin ETF applications, but has approved futures bitcoin ETFs. Some firms who were unable to get approval for a spot bitcoin ETF have created closed-end bitcoin trusts instead. Since June 2023, a significant number of Spot ETFs from BlackRock and other funds have been submitted, and it’s expected that a bitcoin spot ETF will be approved relatively soon.

History of International ETFs

While investors in the U.S. have not had the option to trade a spot bitcoin ETF project and only recently been able to get bitcoin exposure with a futures bitcoin ETF, investors in other countries have a handful of financial products that give them this option.

  • The world's first Bitcoin ETF is listed on the Bermuda Stock Exchange: launched September 2020.
  • Canada approves its first Bitcoin ETF, the Purpose Bitcoin ETF (BTCC): launched February 2021.
  • The Evolve Bitcoin ETF (EBIT) and the CI Galaxy Bitcoin ETF (BTCX) get approved in Canada shortly thereafter: launched February 2021.
  • Europe’s first ETF, proposed by Jacobi Asset Management: ready to launch, no official date at this time.

Pros & Cons

As with any investment product, Bitcoin ETFs have their own set of advantages and disadvantages. The various flavors of ETFs have their own pros and cons, so in this article we’ll just touch upon the basics.


  • Allows for access and exposure to bitcoin to companies and individuals alike which cannot or will not purchase the asset itself.
  • Eliminates the complexities and security risks of directly holding bitcoin.
  • Enhances liquidity and reduces transaction costs.
  • Regulated and transparent investment vehicles which are attractive to many investors.


  • Regulatory authorities have expressed concerns regarding market manipulation and investor protection.
  • Futures based ETFs enable market manipulation.
  • Investors are reliant on the fund provider's management and security measures. This introduces counterparty risk, which bitcoin is designed to prevent when held in self-custody.

Should You Buy A Bitcoin ETF?

When considering whether to invest in a Bitcoin ETF, it is essential to assess your investment goals, risk tolerance and understanding of the market. As with any investment, it is recommended that you conduct thorough research and seek professional financial advice before making any investment decisions.

Investing in Bitcoin ETFs can provide a way to gain exposure to the potential upside of bitcoin's price movements, without directly holding the digital currency. However, it is important to note that the value of bitcoin is highly volatile, and investing in Bitcoin ETFs involves risks that should be carefully considered.

How To Choose The Right Bitcoin ETF For You

When selecting a Bitcoin ETF, there are several factors to consider:

  • Regulatory Approval: Check if the ETF has received regulatory approval and is listed on a reputable exchange.
  • Asset Backing: Understand whether the ETF is backed by physical bitcoin or bitcoin futures contracts.
  • Expense Ratio: Assess the management fees and expenses associated with the ETF.
  • Liquidity: Evaluate the trading volume and liquidity of the ETF shares.
  • Fund Provider: Consider the reputation and track record of the fund provider.

By carefully considering these factors, you can choose a Bitcoin ETF that aligns with your investment objectives and risk tolerance.

Examining The Tax Implications Of A Bitcoin ETF

Investing in a Bitcoin ETF may have tax implications. It is crucial to understand the tax regulations in your jurisdiction and consult with a tax advisor to ensure compliance.

The sale or redemption of Bitcoin ETF shares may result in capital gains or losses, subject to applicable tax rules. Additionally, the distribution of any income earned by the Bitcoin ETF may be subject to taxation.

It is important to keep accurate records of transactions and consult with a tax professional to understand the potential tax implications of investing in a Bitcoin ETF.

Overall, a Bitcoin ETF offers investors a regulated and convenient way to gain exposure to bitcoin. However, it is crucial to thoroughly assess the risks and rewards associated with investing in this emerging asset class. By understanding the mechanics of a Bitcoin ETF and conducting proper due diligence, investors can make informed decisions to navigate the evolving world of cryptocurrencies.